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Record Number


PROSEA Handbook Number

5(2): Timber trees; Minor commercial timbers


Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Benth.

This article should be read together with the article on the genus: Acacia in the Handbook volume indicated above in this database.


Lond. Journ. Bot. 1: 377 (1842).


Racosperma auriculiforme (A. Cunn. ex Benth.) Pedley (1986).

Vernacular Names

Northern black wattle, Papua wattle (En). Indonesia: akasia (general), ki hia (Sundanese). Thailand: krathin-narong (Bangkok).


New Guinea, Kai Islands and Australia (Queensland and Northern Territory); also planted in plantations, and naturalized in western Malesia.


The wood is used as wattle, e.g. as poles for house building, for furniture and veneer; it is also employed for pulp and a useful firewood. The bark is collected locally as tanning material. The tree is also planted as an ornamental wayside tree, especially in western Malesia, for erosion control, and as a shade tree.


A medium-sized tree up to 20(—30) m tall, bole branchless for up to 12 m, up to 50 cm in diameter, bark surface deeply fissured, grey or dark grey, inner bark cream, branchlets angular; phyllodes curved or falcate, 10—16 cm (1.2—)1.5—2(—3) cm, 4—8(—10) times as long as wide, with 3 or 4 major longitudinal veins, secondary veins somewhat anastomosing; flowers in somewhat interrupted spikes, 5-merous, corolla 1.7—2 mm long; pod contorted, c. 6.5 cm 1—1.5(—2.5) cm, subwoody, with anastomosing venation. Acacia auriculiformis occurs in Eucalyptus savanna, is a main constituent of Acacia-Melaleuca woodlands, and is found on forest edges near swamps, in secondary growth, in monsoon forest, in grassland with Melaleuca spp., and is common in coastal savanna at the inner edge of mangrove, at 0—90 m altitude in New Guinea, but up to 400 m in Australia. The density of the wood is 490—840 kg/m3 at 15% moisture content.

Selected Sources

[36]Backer, C.A. & Bakhuizen van den Brink, R.C., 1963–1968. Flora of Java. 3 volumes. Noordhoff, Groningen.
[119]Darus Ahmad & Ab. Rasip Ab. Ghani, 1989. A note on Acacia hybrids in a forest plantation in Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 2(2): 170–171.
[162]Flora Malesiana (various editors), 1950–. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston, London.
[289]Keating, W.G. & Bolza, 1982. Characteristics, properties and uses of timbers. Vol. 1. South-East Asia, northern Australia and the Pacific. Inkata Press Proprietary Ltd., Melbourne, Sydney & London. 362 pp.
[300]Kobmoo, B., Chaichanasuwat, O. & Pukittiyacamee, P., 1990. A preliminary study on the pretreatment of seed of leguminous species. The Embryon 3(1): 6–10.
[451]National Academy of Sciences, 1980. Firewood crops. Shrub and tree species for firewood production. National Academy Press, Washington D.C. 237 pp.
[469]Nicholson, D.I., 1965. A note on Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Benth. in Sabah. Malayan Forester 28(3): 243–244.
[474]Oey Djoen Seng, 1951. Perbandingan berat dari jenis-jenis kaju Indonesia dan pengartian beratnja kaju untuk keperluan praktek [Specific gravity of Indonesian woods and its significance for practical use]. Laporan No 46. Balai Penjelidikan Kehutanan, Bogor. 183 pp.
[499]Pinyopusarerk, K., 1990. Acacia auriculiformis: an annotated bibliography. Winrock International Institute of Agricultural Development & Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research. 154 pp.
[509]Pryor, L.D., 1989. Vegetative propagation of Casuarina and Acacia: potential for success. In: Boland, D.J. (Editor): Trees for the tropics. Growing Australian multipurpose trees and shrubs in developing countries. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra. pp. 155—157.
[547]Sastroamidjojo, J.S., 1964. Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. Pengumuman No 84. Lembaga-Lembaga Penelitian Kehutanan, Bogor. 12 pp.
[649]Turnbull, J.W., 1986. Multipurpose Australian trees and shrubs. Lesser known species for fuelwood and agroforestry. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra. pp. 155—157.rnational Agricultural Research, Canberra. 316 pp.
[650]Turnbull, J.W. (Editor), 1987. Australian acacias in developing countries. Proceedings of an international workshop held at the Forestry Training Centre, Gympie, Queensland, Australia, 4–7 August 1986. ACIAR Proceedings No 16. 196 pp.
[672]Verdcourt, B., 1979. A manual of New Guinea legumes. Botany Bulletin No 11. Office of Forests, Division of Botany, Lae. 645 pp.
[687]Webb, D.B, Wood, P.J. & Smith, J.P., 1984. A guide to species selection for tropical and sub-tropical plantations. 2nd edition. Tropical Forestry Papers No 15. University of Oxford. 256 pp.
[737]Yamada, N., Khoo, K.C. & Mohd. Nor Mohd. Yusoff, 1992. Sulphate pulping characteristics of Acacia hybrid, Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis from Sabah. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 4(3): 206–214.


F. Arentz

Correct Citation of this Article

Arentz, F., 1995. Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. ex Benth.. In: Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Soerianegara, I. and Wong, W.C. (Editors): Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 5(2): Timber trees; Minor commercial timbers. PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia. Database record:

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