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Record Number


PROSEA Handbook Number

5(2): Timber trees; Minor commercial timbers


Acacia mangium Willd.

This article should be read together with the article on the genus: Acacia in the Handbook volume indicated above in this database.


Sp. Pl. ed 4, 4: 1053 (1806).


Racosperma mangium (Willd.) Pedley (1987).

Vernacular Names

Brown salwood, black wattle, hickory wattle (En). Indonesia: tongke hutan, mangge hutan (general), nak (Moluccas). Malaysia: mangium (general). Thailand: krathin-thepha.


Sula Islands, Seram, Aru Islands, Irian Jaya, Western Province of Papua New Guinea and north-eastern Queensland; planted elsewhere in the Malesian region, especially in Sabah and Peninsular Malaysia, also as an ornamental.


Acacia mangium is an important source of wattle timber; the wood is used for e.g. construction, boat building, furniture and cabinet-making, veneer, but it also makes excellent particle board. The pulp is readily bleached to high brightness levels and is excellent for paper making. The tree is also used for firewood, and is occasionally planted as an ornamental, for erosion control, or as fire-break or windbreak. The leaves may serve as forage for cattle.


A medium-sized to fairly large tree up to 35 m tall, bole branchless for up to 15 m, up to 90 cm in diameter, bark surface fissured near the base, greyish-brown to dark brown, inner bark pale brown, branchlets acutely triangular; phyllodes straight or straight along one side and curved along the other, up to 25 cm 3.5—9 cm, 2—5 times as long as wide, with 4 (or 5) main longitudinal veins, secondary veins finely anastomosing; flowers in spikes, 5-merous, corolla 1.2—1.5 mm long; pod linear, coiled, up to 10 cm 0.3—0.5 cm, membranous to slightly woody, inconspicuously veined. Acacia mangium is found, sometimes dominant, in primary and secondary forest, forest margins, savanna, grassland, savanna woodland, on poorly drained floodplains and along fringes of mangrove forest where it is sometimes associated with Melaleuca and Rhizophora spp., up to 200 m altitude in Malesia, but up to 500(—800) m in Australia. In New Guinea, it often prefers slightly higher and drier sites than other Acacia species growing in the same area. The density of the wood is (450—)530—690 kg/m3 at 15% moisture content. See also the table on wood properties.


Acacia mangium Willd. – 1, habit of young tree; 2, flowering twig; 3, pods.

Selected Sources

[24]Appanah, S. & Weinland, G., 1993. Planting quality timber trees in Peninsular Malaysia – a review. Malayan Forest Record No 38. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kepong. 221 pp.
[29]Atipanumpai, L., 1989. Acacia mangium: studies on the genetic variation in ecological and physiological characters of a fast-growing plantation tree species. Acta Forestalia Fennica 206: 1–92.
[32]Awang, K. & De Cravez, C.G., 1993. Effect of root wrenching and controlled watering on growth, drought resistance and quality of bare-rooted seedlings of Acacia mangium. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 5(3): 309–321.
[33]Awang, K. & Taylor, D.A. (Editors), 1993. Tropical Acacias in East Asia and the Pacific. Proceedings of a first meeting of the Consultative Group for Research and Development of Acacias (COGREDA) held in Phuket, Thailand, June 1–3, 1992. Winrock International, Bangkok. iv + 106 pp.
[34]Awang, K. & Taylor, D.A. (Editors), 1993. Acacias for rural, industrial, and environmental development. Proceedings of the second meeting of the Consultative Group for Research and Development of Acacias (COGREDA) held in Udorn Thani, Thailand, February 15–18, 1993. Winrock International & FAO, Bangkok. v + 258 pp.
[35]Awang, K. & Taylor, D. (Editors), 1993. Acacia mangium growing and utilization. MPTS Monograph Series No 3. Winrock International & FAO, Bangkok. xiii + 280 pp.
[65]Bowen, M.R. & Eusebio, T.V., 1981. Acacia mangium: Updated information on seed collection, handling and germination testing. Seeds Series No 5. FAO/UNDP-MAL/78/009, Forest Research Centre Sandakan, Sabah. 26 pp.
[118]Darus Ahmad, 1990. Vegetative propagation of Acacia mangium by stem cuttings: the effect of age and phyllode number on rooting. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 2(4): 274–279.
[119]Darus Ahmad & Ab. Rasip Ab. Ghani, 1989. A note on Acacia hybrids in a forest plantation in Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 2(2): 170–171.
[162]Flora Malesiana (various editors), 1950–. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, Boston, London.
[289]Keating, W.G. & Bolza, 1982. Characteristics, properties and uses of timbers. Vol. 1. South-East Asia, northern Australia and the Pacific. Inkata Press Proprietary Ltd., Melbourne, Sydney & London. 362 pp.
[300]Kobmoo, B., Chaichanasuwat, O. & Pukittiyacamee, P., 1990. A preliminary study on the pretreatment of seed of leguminous species. The Embryon 3(1): 6–10.
[361]Lee, S.S. & Maziah Zakaria, 1993. Fungi associated with heart rot of Acacia mangium in Peninsular Malaysia. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 5(4): 479–484.
[362]Lee, S.S., Teng, S.Y., Lim, M.T. & Razali, A.K., 1988. Discolouration and heart rot of Acacia mangium Willd. Some preliminary results. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 1(2): 170–171.
[452]National Research Council, 1983. Mangium and other fast-growing acacias for the humid tropics. National Academy Press, Washington D.C. 62 pp.
[474]Oey Djoen Seng, 1951. Perbandingan berat dari jenis-jenis kaju Indonesia dan pengartian beratnja kaju untuk keperluan praktek [Specific gravity of Indonesian woods and its significance for practical use]. Laporan No 46. Balai Penjelidikan Kehutanan, Bogor. 183 pp.
[509]Pryor, L.D., 1989. Vegetative propagation of Casuarina and Acacia: potential for success. In: Boland, D.J. (Editor): Trees for the tropics. Growing Australian multipurpose trees and shrubs in developing countries. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra. pp. 155—157.
[630]Tan, K.C., 1987. Exotic tree species in commercial plantations in Sabah, Malaysia. Malaysian Forester 50(1): 62–71.
[639]Tham, C.K., 1978. Introduction to a plantation species – Acacia mangium Willd. In: Proceedings of the Sixth Malaysian Forestry Conference. Vol. 2. Kuching. pp. 153–158.
[640]Tham, C.K., 1979. Trials of Acacia mangium Willd. as a plantation species in Sabah. Forest Genetic Resources Information No 9. FAO, Rome. pp. 32–35.
[649]Turnbull, J.W., 1986. Multipurpose Australian trees and shrubs. Lesser known species for fuelwood and agroforestry. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra. pp. 155—157.rnational Agricultural Research, Canberra. 316 pp.
[650]Turnbull, J.W. (Editor), 1987. Australian acacias in developing countries. Proceedings of an international workshop held at the Forestry Training Centre, Gympie, Queensland, Australia, 4–7 August 1986. ACIAR Proceedings No 16. 196 pp.
[672]Verdcourt, B., 1979. A manual of New Guinea legumes. Botany Bulletin No 11. Office of Forests, Division of Botany, Lae. 645 pp.
[687]Webb, D.B, Wood, P.J. & Smith, J.P., 1984. A guide to species selection for tropical and sub-tropical plantations. 2nd edition. Tropical Forestry Papers No 15. University of Oxford. 256 pp.
[691]Weinland, G., 1987. Zum Jugendwachstum von Acacia mangium Willd. [About the early growth of Acacia mangium Willd.]. Thesis. Göttingen. 188 pp.
[692]Weinland, G. & Zuhaidi, A.Y., 1989. An annotated bibliography on Acacia mangium. Research Pamphlet No 102. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kepong. 104 pp.
[737]Yamada, N., Khoo, K.C. & Mohd. Nor Mohd. Yusoff, 1992. Sulphate pulping characteristics of Acacia hybrid, Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis from Sabah. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 4(3): 206–214.


F. Arentz

Correct Citation of this Article

Arentz, F., 1995. Acacia mangium Willd.. In: Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Soerianegara, I. and Wong, W.C. (Editors): Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 5(2): Timber trees; Minor commercial timbers. PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia. Database record:

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